Joseph Stalin and the Modernization of Russia


        Russia had just been through a huge civil war

        The Russian economy was in shambles

        The job was to now unify the whole country mainly made up of peasants

        Fewer than 20 out of every 100 people lived in the cities

        The peasants had no industrial equipment

        The Kulaks were rich farmers who were brutally abused


Left and Right


        The peasants could not get farm equipment at a reasonable cost, so they would not sell their food to the cities

        Stalin did not agree with Trotsky’s ideas of development, and pushed him into exile. Trotsky would later be assassinated in Mexico by “unknown” sources

        Stalin began his policy of “Socialism in one country”

        This meant get Russia out of her problems before worrying about Communist revolution in the rest of the world. Stalin now had to convince the peasants

        Stalin created his Five Year Plan  - The first one in 1928-33

        This was a list of targets for industries, power supplies and transportation

        Plans would now have the force of government orders

        Collectivization: made all the small farms into huge collectives

        This would increase production, thus making more money

        With the money Russia would buy more industrial products from abroad

        So, less farm workers would be needed, so they could go to the cites and work in the factories

        The plan was very disorganized in the beginning, but did gain some positive industrial results.

        More peasants suffered as the food was taken to feed the cities created some famine

        The Kulaks were obliterated by Stalin, beginning the Purge period

        Those described as actively hostile were put into concentration camp, while their families were deported North to Siberia. The wealthy were banished

        The party officials and the police watched over every aspect of Russian life.

        The plans did increase industrial output rapidly

        Stalin’s priorities were industry, not clothing

        13 million men and women were added to the cities during the first five year plan

        Blame for any failures of quotas were put on the workers, who were called enemies who were trying to sabotage Stalin and the Soviet People.