China After WW II
- Chiang Kai Sheks Nationalists vs. Mao
- Mao had broad support from the peasants
- Maos forces had done most of the fighting against
the Japanese during the occupation
- Mao defeated Chiangs forces, and forced Chiang to
flee to Taiwan in 1949
Why did Mao win?
- Recognized as the defender of China by the people during
- Troops were better trained and prepared/motivated
- Chiangs government was corrupt
- American backing of Chiang decreased his support (open
- Faced major problems in creating the new China
- Industrialization was down 50%, agriculture was down 25%
- Devastated roads and rail systems
- Peasants were given millions of acres of land taken from
the old landlords
- Peasants encouraged (not forced like Stalin) to form
co-operatives / collectives.
Step 2- First 5-Year Plan
- Nationalized Heavy Industry to increase production
of steel, coal, electric power and oil.
- Some limited success, but lacked consumer goods
- Soviets helped in sending engineers and technicians, but
were unwilling to give up Atomic secrets. This
began to create tensions between the two Communist
First Five Year Plan
The first five-year plan of Mao Tse-Tung was
put into effect in 1953 and used propaganda such as pamphlets and
newspapers to familiarize the people of the new communist China.
China, whose plan was based on the Soviet Unions model of
industrialization, was forced to sign agreements with the Soviet
Union in 1953 to put their ideas into use. When China purchased
Soviet technology to aid in their advancement, production went up
to over 41.8% in 1952, while wages were only up 6.9%. However,
even though the amount of crops being produced increased, the
income of money did not, causing the First Five Year Plan to be a
- Govt wanted to revitalize industry by implementing
soviet style 5 yr. Plans.
- 1st plan produce energy and hydroelectric
power little heard about it except that some
progress has been made. even today China has small
industrial base for a country of its size.
- By 1957 output in farm machinery, trucks, tractors
and jet planes doubled.
- Growth in industry came at the expense of the peasants.
but it revitalized cities and attracted people to
them the urban population went from about 60
million to over 100 million - this created problems.
- Industry also had an effect on the communist hierarchy
some leaders grew comfortable in the city and
abandoned their rural roots (therefore no governing
leadership in the country)
- The party split into two at this point right wing
conservatives = economic and industrial growth: Left wing
radicals = democratic development of the farm this
division still a problem to this day (question
which path to take to socialism utopia???).
- 1960 almost all farms had been organized on a village
- By 1956 Mao believed that socialism had come and
been accepted by the people. however he thought
that China needed more thinkers on May 2 he
gave a speech calling for 100 schools of thought and
giving free reign to scientists to debate theories and
encourage writers and artists to comment on society
without criticizing the socialist system. Those
intellectuals who spoke out against the part were
Step 3 - The 100 Flowers Campaign 1956
- Let 100 flowers bloom and 100 schools of thought
- Chinas intellectuals were encouraged to give their
views on Communism and the national program.
- The criticism was too much for Mao, who shut down the
campaign, but did take some ideas.
Step 4- The Great Leap Forward 1958 1962
- - Goal was self-sufficiency by increasing quotas in
- - The plan failed because the quotas were too high,
communes were too large
- - Droughts and floods did not help, and the Sino
The Great Leap Forward 1958-1960
With the goal of economic and technical
development, The Great Leap Forward was established
by Mao Tse-Tung in 1958, but ended in economic failure. This
program set up commune systems that divided families to work on
the land as well as send Chinese workers to improve the
infrastructure. Throughout 1959, there was an increased rate of
starvation in addition to the decline of industrial plants
because of a lack of profit motive. After this failure, Mao
ordered for the Great Proletariat Revolution, which
had people abandon capitalistic ideas, ending in chaos and myriad
- Great Leap Forward (was unsuccessful), was
meant to foster both industrial and agrian growth.
wanted to accomplish this by sending the urban unemployed
back to the country where they could be the leaders of
creating local industries. Mao at this time tried
to shift his focus to the creation of light industries
which would provide consumer goods that would
energize the peasants to work harder (so that they could
afford to buy these goods) which would produce higher
yields to sustain the growth in heavy industry.
- 1000s of youths flooded the countryside this
resulted in chaos and disruption, followed by drought and
a flood. This plan ended in failure in 1960.
- 1958- there was a shortage of food.
- By 1960 most communes were abandoned
- death of Stalin create a rift btwn Soviets and China.
Mao disagreed with Khrushchev de-Stalinization and
policy of peaceful co-existence. Soviets in return
adopted a policy of containment to China and did not
support the border was China had with India in 1959.
- Brezhnev replaced Khrushchev in 1964 1969 Brezhnev
Doctrine state that the Soviet Union had a
responsibility to intervene in other socialist countries
in the interest of communist solidarity (did this with
respect to the Czech republic) China afraid USSR
will invade them so they turn to the US for
support 1977 Nixon visited Beijing.
- 1971 China took Taiwan seat in UN
- 70s China retreated from socialism to a modified
- 1964 The Red Book Maos
thoughts in political indoctrination (brainwashing).
Step 5- The Cultural Revolution 1966
- Mao was concerned that the energy and passion for true
Marxism was lacking
- Revisionists wanted cautious, moderate change
- So, Mao attacked many Communists for their lack of
- Mao created the little Red Book a
blueprint of true Marxism and how the country was going
to get there. Huge support from the youths and students.
Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution 1966-1969
The great proletarian cultural revolution of
1966 was Mao Tse-Tungs desperate attempt to retain his high
power, which was being threatened by those leaders who challenged
the soundness of his domestic foreign policies, which emphasized
revolutionary action. Mao enlisted the support of the Red Guards,
a national organization of young adults who were devoted to
upholding Maos revolutionary ideas using violence and
intimidation as their methods of enforcement. China was plunged
into economic, political, and military chaos until order was
restored by revolutionary committees, bringing to an
end the era of violent revolution in China.
- 1966-76 resembled a civil war it was
anti-intellectual in nature.
- Mao strategy was to use the youth to raise mass
consciousness to the dangers or capitalism the
revolution began in the universities and spread to the
schools (it was easier to brainwash students, who would
then spread the ideas from there) students were
identified with a red armband.
- Many students left school to root out left-winged
supporters across the country wanted to destroy
all symbols of the past they were called the Red
Guard they were empowered by the army
they established local councils but problem arose
they began to rival amongst each other for power.
- Sept 1967 Premier Zhou Enlai ordered the peoples
army to restore order by force about 400,000 died
and millions sent to correctional camps for re-education
- 17 million were sent out in work brigades in the country
to live a simple life and learn proper ethics and morals.
- Students return to the cities and could not go back to
school thus becoming a lost generation.
- Mao died in 1976 under him china became a united
nation for the 1st time since 1911 and he
tried to set it towards modernization.
Soviet Aid 1950s
During the 1950s the Soviet Union and
China developed an alliance between themselves, benefiting to
both. The Soviets made major concessions to China, including the
abrogation of Soviet privileges in Manchuria. In addition, trade
between the bordering nations reached a value of two billion
dollars annually. However, the past rivalry between the Soviets
and the Chinese surfaced once the Soviets had refused aid in
developing nuclear power in China, causing resentment and the
breaking of the relationship.
The Sino-Soviet Split
- China dissatisfied with the lack of Soviet help during
the Korean War.
- Belief that china was being treated as a Soviet Satellite
- USSR refuses China nuclear weapons, China wants to spread
Communism in Asia
- Peaceful Co-existence speech was hated by China
not strong enough
- In 1959 Khrushchev visited the USA, a sign of weakness,
on his way to visit China
- Mao criticized Khrushchev for not supporting the Great
- 1960 the USSR pulled out all its advisors
- 1964, China developed its own Nuclear bomb, then in 1967
a neutron bomb
- Over 4000 border incidents between the two countries.
The USA had never recognized Communist
China, only Nationalist China (Taiwan). In 1971 Taiwan was
replaced in the UN Security Council by Communist China. Ping Pong
diplomacy! In 1972 US President Richard Nixon visited
Beijing and recognized the country.
China in the 1980s
- Mao dies and Deng Xiaoping gained control of the
- He created special economic zones where communism would
be relaxed for free trade. Done to help the Chinese
economy get better
- 1990s China becomes a major economic and trading nation
population 1.25 billion people
- 1976-78 power struggle Deng Xiaoping arose as
leader he wanted to modernize in agriculture,
industry, defense and science. Consumer goods
entered the market causing both unemployment and
inflation to increase.
- China didnt have a stable economy until 1984.
- Deng reinstated the open door trading policies with the
rest of the world he created Special Economic
Zones - which were established to control foreign
trade. within the zones, price and profit
mechanisms were used to guide transaction. Deng
brought western flavor to China politically and socially
in this manor.
- Political liberalization did not occur Tiananmen
Square in 1988, protests by students was ruthlessly
- China economy boomed in the 80s but in 1987 it hit
a trade deficit (importing more than they were exporting)
- 1988 30% increase in cost of living by the
end of the year 80% - inflation erased the middle class
- Right wing demonstrate Deng stated that all forms
of dissent illegal.
- 40th anniversary of the founding of the
Republic of China was used to push for new reforms
Apr. 1989 10,000 students marched on Tiananmen sq.
to demand political reforms and intellectual freedom.
By late Apr. 100,000 gather start a hunger
strike by may 18 1 million people 19 may
martial law declared. Deng called in the army
June 3 troops move into the city fire at
will and kill many over next few days 4500
civilians killed and 1000 soldiers. June 9 1989
Deng claimed victory 2000 people arrested
17 June hangings began. Suppression of
press and of peoples ability to gather.