is predominantly caused by a shortening or tightening of the piriformis
muscle, and while many things can be attributed to this, they can all
be categorized into two main groups: Overload (or training errors); and
Overload (or training errors): Piriformis syndrome is commonly associated with sports that require a lot of running, change of direction or weight bearing activity. However, piriformis syndrome is not only found in athletes. In fact, a large proportion of reported cases occur in people who lead a sedentary lifestyle. Other overload causes include:
Biomechanical Inefficiencies: The major biomechanical inefficiencies contributing to piriformis syndrome are faulty foot and body mechanics, gait disturbances and poor posture or sitting habits. Other causes can include spinal problems like herniated discs and spinal stenosis. Other biomechanical causes include:
The joints most commonly affected by arthritis in the lower extremity include:
The ankle (tibiotalar joint). The ankle is where the shinbone (tibia) rests on the uppermost bone of the foot (the talus).
The three joints of the hindfoot. These three joints include:
The midfoot (metatarsocuneiform joint). This is where one of the forefoot bones (metatarsals) connects to the smaller midfoot bones (cuneiforms).
The great toe (first metatarsophalangeal joint). This is where the first metatarsal connects to the great toe bone (phalange).This is also the area where bunions usually develop.
Module Three: Shoulder and Elbow
Module Five: Lower Back and Hip
There are many potential causes for spinal stenosis, including:
Foot Arch Support
fasciitis is the most common cause of heel pain in runners, eventually
affecting 10 percent of the running community.
While running, the plantar fascia works with the Achilles tendon to store and return energy. Because of its powerful attachment to the base of the toe, the plantar fascia stabilizes the inner forefoot as forces peak during pushoff. Unlike bone spurs and stress fractures of the heel, plantar fasciitis tends to produce pain during the pushoff phase while running, not during initial contact.
A simple way to tell if you have plantar fasciitis versus a heel spur/stress fracture is to walk on your toes: heel spurs and heel stress fractures feel better while you walk on your toes, while plantar fasciitis typically produces more discomfort when you shift your weight onto your toes.
Joints and bones of the foot and ankle
Rotator Cuff Conditions
Module Seven: Foot & Ankle
Module One: Spinal Column
Module 4: Hand and Wrist
There are three types of arthritis that may affect your foot and ankle.
Osteoarthritis, also known as degenerative or "wear and tear" arthritis, is a common problem for many people after they reach middle age. Over the years, the smooth, gliding surface covering the ends of bones (cartilage) becomes worn and frayed. This results in inflammation, swelling, and pain in the joint.
Osteoarthritis progresses slowly and the pain and stiffness it causes worsens over time.
Unlike osteoarthritis which follows a predictable pattern in certain joints, rheumatoid arthritis is a system-wide disease. It is an inflammatory disease where the patient's own immune system attacks and destroys cartilage.
Post-traumatic arthritis can develop after an injury to the foot or ankle. This type of arthritis is similar to osteoarthritis and may develop years after a fracture, severe sprain, or ligament injury.
Common Neck injury
Insoles with Durable Soft rubber Gel Heel Spur Cup
Module six: Knee and lower extremity
Module Two: Neck and upper Back
Depending on the type, location, and severity of the arthritis, there are many types of treatment available.
Nonsurgical treatment options include: