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Pharaoh Smenkhkare or Semenkhkare (Ankhkeprure) (1486-1484 B.C.) (1358-1356) (1349-1347 B.C.) (1335-1333 B.C.) but some exclude him from the dynasty 18 list.
(9th) King Zhong Ding of the Shang Dynasty of China ruled 11 years (1,486- 1,475 B.C.) Others suggest he ruled 9 years.
The child-king Tutankhamun (Nebkheprure) (1484-1475 B.C.) (1361-1348 B.C.) (1355-1347) (1347-1338 B.C.) (1333-1323 B.C.) of the Dynasty 18 became king of Egypt.
The true enemies of Egypt in Syria are neither the Semitic Canaanites nor the Semitic-Amorites (Sumerians) but the Hurri-Mitannians long entrenched in these regions and strongly organized. King Paratarna of Mitanni is centered in the steppe between the Euphrates and the Tigris. It is believed that all the Kings of Assur who reigned (1500-1360) are the vassals of the King of Mitanni.
The Egyptians and Assyrians launched a raid against the the Hittites. The double tragedy of a military defeat and loss of their king throw Egypt into panic.
Pharaoh Aya or Ay (Kheperkheprare) (1475-1471 B.C.) (1346-1343) (1337-1333 B.C.) (1323-1319 B.C.) but some exclude him from the dynasty 18.
(10th) King Wai Ren of the Shang Dynasty of China ruled 15 years (1,474-1,459 B.C.) Others suggest he ruled 10 years.
Semites are under control of the Ammonites and the incursion of the Philistines (1219-1201). The Philistines and Ammonites conquered and ruled all Palestine beyond the Jordan for 18 years. The Ammonites also crossed the Jordan to fight the tribes of Judah, Benjamin and Ephraim according to legend. The Ammonites would contend that the Hebrews had seized their lands when they came out of Egypt.
Pharaoh Meneptah (Baenrehotephirmaat) (1224-1214) 19th dynasty of Egypt in his fifth year records a victory over the people of Palestine suggesting he supported the suppression of a rebellion of the Semites.
Reign Pharaoh Horemhab (Djeserkheprure) (meaning Horus is in festival) (1471-1441 B.C.) (1348-1320 B.C.) (1342-1315) (1333-1303 B.C.) (1319-1307 B.C.) (1319-1292 B.C.) or (973-945 B.C) Dynasty 18. Horemhab is chief of the army under Tutankhamun and remained in favor under Aya then assumed the throne and married Queen Mutnodjmet. He dated his reign to Amenhotep III thus erasing the Amarna period. Horemheb,s chief goal is to eradicate all traces of Akhenaten. He returned all properties of the temples to the rightful priests that Akhenaten had confiscated during the Amenhotep period. He is determined to stamp out law-less-ness on the official level. He is called a stern ruler because he established firm edicts aimed at high-ranking officials promising swift judgement and the death penalty. Under his reign the Atenist heresy and all those associated with it traditions are destroyed including the city of Akhetaten. Many thousands of people, priests, civil servants, scribes, soldiers and peasants who served the heretic pharaoh are exiled to the Sinai. Some believe that these followers of the one God Aten sect would evolve into the Children of Israel.
The appears to be no ruler of the tribes of Israel (1467-1449) during the next 18 years. According to Biblical records: After the death of Biblical Joshua (1492-1467 B.C.) when a full generation of people had died the sons of Israel lived among the Canaanite, Hittites, Amorites, Perizzites, Hivites and Jebusites. They married the daughters of these people, gave their own daughters in marriage to their sons, and served their Gods. It is noteworthy that the book of Joshua claims to cover a period of 2400-1200 B.C. Egyptian records suggest the sons of Israel are the Egyptian Atenist Sect that is driven into the desert to mix with the other peoples of the desert. Manetho the historian suggests the Atenist Sect in the stone-quarries had suffered hardship for a considerable time and begged the king to assign them a refuge, the deserted city of the Shepherds, Auaris (Avaris) and he consented. They appointed a priest of Heliopolis called Osarsepth and took an oath of obedience to him in everything. He established laws not to worship the Egyptian gods nor refrain from eating animals sacred to Egypt. They should have intercourse with none save those of their own confederacy. He later changed his name to Moses which is not Hebrew but is of Egyptian derivation.
(11th) King He Dan Jia of the Shang Dynasty of China ruled 9 years (1,458-1,449 B.C.)
The Minoan as a civilization is totally destroyed but as a culture it spread throughout the Middle East.
Some of the earliest pottery of the Semitic-Habiru (Hebrew?) can be found but it is of low-quality and distinctive imitations of Minoan-Philistine jugs. If it were not for the Bible nobody would even start to think about these alleged Hebrew-speaking tribes of nomads. There is no evidence to support large migrations of these people but rather a series of small groups of Canaanite, Egyptian, Philistine and Habiru (Hebrew?) traditions. It is noteworthy that the Torah is not created for another 1,000 years and these nomadic peoples at this time are likely unable to read or write. The Egyptian Aten scribes however could read and write.
Some suggest Shalmaneser I (1274-1245 B.C.) a descendent of King Hammurabi (1950 B.C.) rules Babylon, built the city of Caleh. Others suggest King Kadashman-harbe I ruled this year as part of the Kassite Dynasty (1570-1157 B.C.) of Babylon.
Cushan controlled Palestine (1449-1441)
(12th) King Zu Yi of the Shang Dynasty of China ruled 19 years (1,448-1,429 B.C.)
"Anyone who kidnaps another and either sells him or still has him when he is caught must be put to death." Exodus 21:16 Despite this warning 100's of million of people would be forced into slavery.
Mythical Biblical Othniel (1441-1401 B.C.) son Kenaz, Caleb's younger brother became Judge of the tribes of Israel. He immediately waged war with Edom then the land enjoyed rest for forty years. Eglon in alliance with the sons of Ammon and Amalek marched on Israel and enslaved the people for eighteen years after the death of Othniel but before the reign of Ehud (1383-1375).
If the Biblical Exodus of 600,000 men is to be believed then the mass majority of the Egyptian Moses Sect must be poor Egyptians looking for a better life. The writer Manetho suggests that 80,000 are unclean Egyptians formally banished to the east of the Nile to work the stone-quarries. The Oracle of Hammon (Amen) told the pharaoh to purify the kingdom by expelling the victims of scurvy and leprosy as they lay under a divine curse. Chaeremon suggests the number is 250,000 unclean are banished and fell in with a body of 380,000 persons left there by Amenophis. Chaeremon says that Moses was named Tisithen. Manetho says these people asked King Amenophis to assign to them the deserted city of Shepherds, Auaris (Avaris) (later named Raamses) as their dwelling-place. Oscarseph a priest of Heliopolis is eventually appointed their leader. Due to his bitterness against the Egyptians he established a number of laws completely opposed to Egyptian custom. The Egyptian Shepherds and the followers of Oscarseph numbered some 200,000 people. Oscarseph who worshipped the god Osiris changed his name to Moses. Moses prepared for war against his fellow Egyptians but the Solymites of Jerusalem made a descent along with the polluted Egyptians of the Moses Sect and treated the people so impiously and savagely that the domination of the Shepherds seemed like a golden age. They set towns and villages on fire, pillaging the temples and mutilating the images of gods without restraint. Some suggest this account dates to the reign of Akhenaten.
The mythical Biblical General Moses (ca. 1612-1492 B.C.) is alleged to have wandered in the wilderness (1532-1492) forty years with 600,000 men mostly Egyptians before turning his leadership of the Egyptians to Joshua in 1492. It is noteworthy that Moses is not a man of eloquence, unable to speak well and required Aaron as his mouthpiece. Moses is unlikely responsible for the writing of the Torah, in part or whole. Aaron a Levite is claimed to be the first High Priest, and elder brother of Moses. Biblical scholars suggest Aaron if he existed at all is likely the composite of two personalities. All the men out of Egypt are circumcised but Moses banned the practice as an Egyptian ritual dating back to 6,000 B.C. long before Abraham's time. However Zippotah the daughter of Jethro a Midianite priest was believed to be the first recorded Jewish circumcision under Moses command likely in defiance. She is likely bonding her son to herself not God or possibly the Egyptian God?
Some alleged that Ramesses II (1304-1237 B.C.) (1279-1213 B.C.) of Egypt drove Moses (1532) and the Semitic speaking Habiru (Hebrew) out of Egypt. Judah Sect tradition suggests they departed from Avaris (later named Raamses), capital city of Egypt's Hyksos oppressors. The Minoan-Philistines is also known to reside in this city. Exodus records that about 600,000 men are involved suggesting an exodus of about two to three million people. There is no evidence to support this mythology that is likely unless it’s based on the Egyptian loss and withdrawal from Palestine. A battle between Egypt and the Hittite nearly destroyed both armies during the reign of Ramesses II (1304-1237 B.C.). The Hittite alliance (1290-1224 B.C.) forged a reasonable approach to the division of territories and vassal nations. Some suggest the Moses (ca. 1612-1492 B.C.) alias Mosheh mythologies are likely based on the first Sumerian Semitic King Sargon I (2340-2316 B.C.) or (2485-2430 B.C.) who is considered the father of the Semitic Empire. Others suggest that the Israelites are descendants of the Canaanites and separated from that tribe about this time wandering into the desert.
Karaindash of the Kassite Dynasty (1570-1157 B.C.) of Babylon and Ashurbelnisheshu of the dynasty of Puzur-Ashur of Assyria signed a peace treaty firmly dividing Mesopotamia into the Assyria and Kassite (Babylonian) Empires.
Volcanic fallout from the 1628 B.C. Thera explosion timelines Ramses (Rameses) II (930-863 B.C.) (1304-1237 B.C.) (1287-1220 B.C.) (1290-1224 B.C.) dynasty 19, to (1430 B.C.) based on the Pellegrino theory.
(13th) King Zu Xin of the Shang Dynasty of China ruled 16 years (1,428-1,412 B.C.) Others suggest he ruled 14 years,
(14th) King Wo Jia of the Shang Dynasty of China ruled 25 years (1,411-1,386 B.C.) Others suggest he ruled 20 years
The Moabites maintained control over Palestine (1401-1383) for the next eighteen years.
The Hittite Empire capital city of Hattushash is sacked this year. Baal is the storm God of the Semitic-Canaanite yet they also worship the High God El of Abraham. It is noteworthy that the God Baal demanded the sacrifice of children.
Archaeological evidence suggests that Jericho the Canaanite city is destroyed about this date likely by the Egyptians.
Egypt is unique in the Middle East as their women are treated as equals. Women owned property, could buy and sell or testify in court. The Empire presented married couples as a balanced pair in equal prominence.
Some believe the ten commandments and the Ark of the Covenant is created about this time. The writing of law on stone tablets is an ancient Sumerian tradition. The ten commandment find their origin in Egyptian ethical principles of conduct.
An eight foot tall red granite head depicting Amenhoteo III (1390-1352 B.C.) was discovered at Kom el-Hettan on Luxor's West Bank, Egypt. They believe this statue likely represented him standing rather than sitting.
The Hittite King Shuppiluliumash I invaded Syria.
(15th) King Zu Ding of the Shang Dynasty of China ruled 32 years (1,385-1,353 B.C.)
Mythical Moses said Yahweh commanded "you shall not kill" and the Biblical Joshua (1492-1467 B.C.) claimed to have broke this covenant by killing the aboriginal people of Palestine sparing neither women nor children, show no pity on them. It is unclear where this genocide or ethnic cleansing belief originated. The common practice in the Middle East is to relocate captured people. The women and children are usually retained as slaves ultimately being absorbed into the tribe. The Moses Sect preached that Yahweh says love the stranger give him food and clothing. This ancient belief is common among most trader cults. The Moses Sect said Yahweh commanded "you shall not covet your neighbors (property fixed or movable)" and Joshua broke this covenant. It is unclear where this belief originated. Confiscation of the defeated people’s goods is a common practice in the Middle East. Others suggest Biblical Joshua (1492-1467 B.C.) of the Moses Sect waged war against the Minoan-Philistines but failed to conquer them and because of his ruthless tactics created a bitter enemy to all Hebrews.
The Biblical Joshua (1492-1467 B.C.) introduced a strange belief that the Moses Sect must not intermarry with other people so as to remain a pure race. This belief resurfaced in Germany during world war II. This many be based upon the Egyptian Pharaohs who practiced incest to retain their man-God purity. The common Middle East practice is to intermarry especially to forge alliance with other tribes.
The middle east and Semitic-Hebrew tradition unlike the Chinese tradition allowed incest marriage of brother and sister that is fairly common until prohibited by the law of Moses (ca. 1612-1492 B.C.) this century. This law is probably motivated by the Asiatic (Semitic-Habiru (Hebrew?)) to establish a cultural delineation with their Egyptian brothers. Originally the tradition of brother sister incest unions likely has its origin in the priest cast. The incest tradition in Egypt likely started to protect the King-God concept that would be tainted by outside blood.
Biblical Semitic-Moabites called Ehud (1383-1375 B.C.) became a Judge of the tribe of Israel. The nomadic tribe of Israel is currently paying tribute to King Ehud of Moab. Ehud (1383-1375) the Semitic-Moabites visited then murdered the King Ehud of Moab. Israel went to war with Moab winning and enjoyed peace for the next 80 years.
During the period 1,380 to 1,100 B.C. the Mycenaeans from Greece mainland came over to Crete and mixed with the Minoan culture (3,100-1,050 B.C.)
Biblical Shamgar (1375-1374 B.C.) son Anath became Judge of the tribes of Israel. He waged war against the Philistines and won.
Upon the death of Ehud (1383-1375 B.C.) the Semitic-Moabites, Israel is subjected to the King Jabin of Canaan (1374-1354) who lived at Hazor. The Canaanite is using iron. Israel is cruelly oppressed for twenty years.
On the death of Pharaoh Amenhoteo (Amenophis) III (1396-1361) (1390-1353 B.C.) Abdashirta and his son Aziru carved out a large part of Northern Syria as a separate state. The also entered into an alliance with the Hittite. Both parties however continued to write cordial letters to Egypt. It is noteworthy that the name Israel first appears on an Egyptian stele but is not mentioned again for over three hundred years.
Biblical Deborah (1354-1340 B.C.) a prophetess and wife of Lappidoth became Judge of the tribes of Israel. Barak son Abinoam from Kedesh in Naphtali marched against King Jabin of Canaan (1374-1354) who lived at Hazor of Canaan with Deborah. Sisera of Canaan engaged Barak and Sisera is slain. Yahweh delivered Sisera into the hands of a woman. Israel then moved on King Jabin of Canaan until he is destroyed. The land rested for forty years. Then Midian, Amalek (Midianites) and the sons of the East dominate Israel, for 7 years. Midianite, the nomads, bore heavily on Israel and many escaped to the mountains of the Amorites.
It is believed the reign of the Pharaoh Akhenaten is (1353-1336 or 34 B.C.), died1336-34 B.C. His principle wife was Nefertiti (1370-1330 B.C.) aka possibly Nefiernkhamun or Semenkare and they had 6 daughters. Akhenaten felt God was guiding him to make change and overnight he turned 2,000 years of Egyptian religious tradition upside down. He ordered the Egyptian population into Monotheistic worship of one God, Aten, of the solar disk (sun god). He ordered a new city to be built during the period (1346-1341 B.C.) called Amarna aka Akhetaten or Akhentaton. It would appear women were given equal status for the first time. The city was deserted shortly after his death. Hundreds of high priests who were dedicated to their 100's of gods were out of a job and resented the change. People who earned their living based on the old religions were also out of work. They called him the heretic king of Egypt. He wanted the people to be happy but little changed among the lower classes, they were still overworked and underfed. Examination of bones at Amarna show 60% were teens showing signs of being overworked and poorly nourished. The rest of Egypt was largely ignored during his reign..
(16th) King Nan Geng of the Shang Dynasty of China ruled 29 years (1,352-1,323 B.C.)
Lapita pottery related to the Polynesia, Micronesia and Melanesia cultures was located at Lapita, New Caledonia and dates between 1350 to 750 B.C. It's noteworthy that a Lapita burial site was discovered at Teouma on Efate Island in Vanuatu and was dated to 1000 B.C.
The 1st recorded smallpox epidemic took place during an Egyptian-Hittite war. Hittite warriors caught the disease from Egyptian prisoners. The king and heir were fatally infected and the empire fell apart.
The Ebers Papyrus indicated the medical use of willow bark. It contained salicylic acid, an ingredient of modern aspirin
Army Commander Haremhab (1342-1303 B.C.) becomes Pharaoh and is consumed with the internal conflict. To buy time with foreign matters he enters into treaty with the Hittite essentially accepting their claim on Syria. Palestine became an unmanaged territory and many citizens fled to Egypt in search of refuge.
Celt boats of 15 meter's long by 9 meter's wide and 1.5 meter's high are used to cross the channel from Dover to the main land or so suggests the remains discovered at Dover.
King Idanda of Qatna in western Syria prepared to defend itself from the Hittites of the north, Hurrians from the nearby kingdom of Mitanni of the east and the Egyptians from the south. The walls of the city were fortified and 18,600 bronze swords were cast. The invaders however prevailed.
(17th) King Yang Jia of the Shang Dynasty of China ruled 17 years (1,322-1,305 B.C.) Others suggest he ruled 7 years.
Muwatallish of the Hittite Empire defeated Ramses (Rameses) II (930-863 B.C.) (1304-1237 B.C.) (1287-1220 B.C.) (1290-1224 B.C.) dynasty 19, to (1430 B.C.) based on the Pellegrino theory, of the Egyptian Empire at Kadesh on the Orontes.
Reign Ramses (Ramesses) I (1319-1317 B.C.) (1315-1313) (1303-1301 B.C.) (1292-1290 B.C.) dynasty 19. Ramses (Re-mes-su) suggests the sun God Re still plays an important role in Egyptian life. During his reign foreign named officials from the Semitic peoples of Palestine and Syria are rising. Libyans and Mediterranean peoples also appeared, first as enemies and pirates, then as settlers. This trend parallels the situation in the latter part of dynasty 12 and early dynasty 13.
These Asiatic peoples brought their God Baal and Reshef. The God Baal demanded the sacrifice of children. The Egyptian Sun God is exported to Asia about this time. The belief of judgement in the afterworld began to change
At Uluburun, Turkey a ship sank in 90 feet of water. The ship contained tin for making bronze weapons, copper ingots enough to equip a regiment, as well as amphorar, Ivory and exotic wood.
Pharaoh Sethi (Seti) I (943-930 B.C.) (1290-1279 B.C.) (1314-1305) (1301-1287 B.C.) dynasty 19, based on the Rohl theory or traditionally (1317-1304 B.C.) lists the subjugation of the Hittites, Canaanites and Libyans during his reign. Many prisoners of war are captured and returned to Egypt. A peace treaty with the Hittite King Muwatallis is concluded. Seti the son of Ramses I restored many of the pyramid inscriptions defaced during the reign of Akhenaten (1502-1486 B.C.).
The Hebrew is under control of the Midianites (1314-1307) who represent Egypt.
The Biblical Midianite Gideon (Jerubbaal) (1307-1267 B.C.) son Joash of Abiezer became Judge of the tribes of Israel likely under control of Egypt. Gideon marched against Midian. Amalek and all the sons of the East. Gideon defeated the Midianites who fled. The men of Ephraim assisted in the destruction of the fleeing Midianites (a tribe of Judah) some 135,000 people are killed. Zebah and Zalmunna near the Jordan are destroyed for not helping Israel. The land enjoyed rest for 40 years, as long as Gideon lived. This likely established the long-standing animosity between the Houses of Israel and Judah. Gideon Jerubbaal is likely a follower of the God Baal who demanded the sacrifice of children.
(18th) King Pan Geng of the Shang Dynasty of China ruled 25 years (1,304-1,279 B.C.)
Main stream archaeology established the reign of Ramses (Rameses) II as (1304-1237 B.C.) others suggest (930-863 B.C.) (1279-1213 B.C.) (1287-1220 B.C.) (1290-1224 B.C.) dynasty 19, or (1430 B.C.) based on the Pellegrino theory. Ramses II is the son Seti I (1290-1279 B.C.). Ramses II has some one hundred offspring’s. He has red hair and outlived at least 12 of his sons. Some historians aligned the Biblical General Moses (ca. 1612-1492 B.C.) as being during the reign of Ramses II establishing it as a time line. Others suggest this alignment has no scientific basis. This they say is also supported by the Egyptian-Hittite treaty of 1286 B.C. that is alleged to link Hattusilis (Khattusilis III (1286-1265) of Anatolia with Ramses II in year 21 of his reign. The Pellegrino theory places Ramses (Rameses) II reign as 1430 B.C. and the Rohl theory places the reign as (930-863 B.C). The Rohl theory also places the birth of the mythical Moses as (1535-1415 B.C.). It is noteworthy that the Moses saga never mentioned the Pharaoh by name. Rameses II controlled lands from the present-day Sudan northeast into Syria.
Pharaoh Seri I (1,302-1,290 B.C.) is the first Pharaoh since 1,360 B.C. to attempt a recapture of their Asiatic Empire. He led his army into Canaan then on to Northern Syria against the Hittite. The Hittite King Murshilish II (1334-1306) nearly conquered the Egyptians at Kadesh. Seri I established a new set of laws much harsher than previous laws.