The famous verse "Enter his gates with thanksgiving,
enter his courts with praise"
refers to the inner court and the outer court.
The outer court was for the people of Israel while
only the priests could enter the inner court.
When the exiled Jews were freed by the Persians
and returned to rebuild a second temple,
they measured the outer court as being 500 cubits (750 feet) square.
It is likely that the 500 cubits square courtyard was
the remains of Solomon's Temple.
Both courts were surrounded by three rows of stones
and entered through gates.
Cedar beams were placed on top of the three rows of stone
for protection and beautification.