|SJ 23 Tech Tip E04, (Updated 2018-03-14) Bob Schimmel|
|I learned about battery sulfation (liquid filled) during the mid
1990s while trying to determine why our telephone equipment operated for such
a short time from their "perfectly good" standby batteries. Telephone battery
plants are typically sized to operate the equipment for 24 hours, by which
time commercial power is usually restored. In the
ensuing investigation I
discovered the reason for the failure; that many technicians are ignorant of battery maintenance and
the majority of them are downright scared of the acid, fearing an explosion if
equalize the battery charge or perform a load test on them. The
sailing population is likely no different. Yet regular maintenance like
periodic equalize charging, monitoring the charge
current, voltage, electrolyte levels and keeping the terminals greased and
cases clean, are simple and effective things to do. However, even with all this maintenance, certain batteries still didn't perform
to specification and I
them as manufacturing duds. Little did I know!
That's when I learned that sulfation is a natural by-product of liquid filled battery operation and sooner or later it will kill a battery, especially for a stored battery and to a lesser degree for an infrequently used battery. It occurs normally on battery plates during the charge/discharge cycles. Some lead sulphate is not dissolved back into the electrolyte during the charge cycle. This is especially true if a battery a battery is not charged to its rated voltage or is left discharged for a long time. Over time sulphates build up to cover much of the plates until the battery efficiency is reduced to the point where it is assumed to be dead. This process is the main reason why over 80% of batteries "fail". In this state the average life of a liquid filled battery, depending on usage, is 48 months. Some last only six months. Apparently only 30% of these batteries actually last to 48 months. Suffice it to say that removing the sulphate deposits revived many batteries. So without delving into the depths of battery chemistry or electronics, what follows is a general information about plate sulphation and how to rid a battery of it.
Contrary to common belief, if a boat generator or alternator runs all the time it doesn't mean the battery is maintained in good condition. It is possible to undercharge a battery if the engine is constantly run at a slow speed so the alternator cannot charge at the optimum rate. Idling for long periods with a standard alternator, especially if it is combined with a high electrical load, is a killer. The result is a battery that is not fully charged so it will sulphate, ensuring a quick death.
The preferred method to connect a pulse charger or solar controller to a battery is to take input power from a solar panel and then discharge the high voltage pulses into the battery, both charging the battery and desulphating the plates. It is very efficient because when the sun goes down, the energy is retained in the battery. The output of the solar controller can be left connected to the battery continuously. Think of it as a technique for automatically charging a battery when the sun shines.
Don't confuse a solar controller with a "smart charger." A Smart Charger draws input power from 110VAC with a 12VDC output which is perfect to maintain a boat battery in winter storage or a vehicle battery.
The solar controller must be installed electrically close to the battery to minimize power loss for the high voltage charge pulses. Connect the controller 12 VDC output leads directly across the battery terminals using the shortest wires possible. Connect the solar panel output leads directly to the controller input leads. Connect the outboard generator, wind generator and DC distribution panel leads directly to the system buss bars or battery, observing the correct polarity. If you hear electrical "noise" or a steady motor boat sound on the VHF radio, AM/FM radio or media receiver then some of the pulse width modulation (PWM) energy is leaking into the boat electrical system to which they are connected. To block the "noise" traveling to the DC panel or VHF radio, install ferrite beads on the + DC cables feeding the (radio, distribution panel, outboard generator) as electrically close to the battery as possible. (Tech Tip E02). The wire must go through the ferrite bead and is more effective if you loop it through a second or third turn. If a specific spot along the cable attenuates the RF signal more than another, tape it in this place. You will have to experiment with this. You can get a ready source of ferrite beads from your local electronics recycler. Look for a box of computer power cables with 1" long "bump" (ferrite bead) near one connector. Cut off the cable at both ends of the bump, remove the heat shrink, and drill out the old cable. Now slide the bead over your power cable. While a single ferrite should attenuate all the "noise," sometimes several beads are required.
For absolute control you should install a switch for each power input line (solar panel, engine generator, wind generator, etc.) to isolate any one of them in the event of a trouble. Install and label the switches on the power control panel. All too often you see only the load switches labeled and very seldom are power input switches wired or labeled. To minimize confusion out on the water, the power input switches should be labeled or shaped different than the load switches.
I've heard of a totally dead battery being revived simply by connecting a
pulse charger across it. When the sun light is
weak the charger will simply take longer. This is similar to an electronic camera flash with weak
batteries, the recycle time to the next flash becomes longer as the
battery voltage decays. A pulse charger has similar circuitry. If the solar
panel output is
too low then the pulse charger cannot charge.
that stupid rabbit will die too!).
The most popular battery on an SJ23 is likely a liquid filled deep cycle 12 V battery. If you want this battery to perform for many years it is advisable to keep it charged all the time. If you are going to buy a 115VAC battery charger for home use, regardless of output amperage, consider one with an automatic regulator or what is commonly referred to today as a "smart charger". Keep your smart charger connected to the deep cycle battery during the winter and your battery will be ready for the summer. If the charger is fully automatic there is no need to check it because the charger will switch to maintenance mode when the battery is fully charged. This will greatly improve the condition and life span of a deep cycle battery. With regard to battery maintenance, there is little difference between a smart charger and a dumb charger that is operated manually. Either can maintain a battery charge but most of us have better things to do than monitor a battery being charged!
Smart chargers are available at many automotive stores or a battery retailer. A word of caution on leaving a trickle or similar manual charger connected to a liquid filled battery for a long time; it will eventually overcharge the battery, "boiling" it dry in the process. It is better to use a charger equipped with an automatic set back of the charge voltage. Slow charging over a long time period is better than to ram a charge into it as fast as possible. A high charge current over extended time will also heat a battery which may warp the plates. The following at-rest voltages apply to most liquid filled batteries. Expect the voltage readings to be .2 to 1 volts higher on a gel type battery.
NOTE - Whether you use a sophisticated battery monitor or a hydrometer to check the state of your battery, knowing when to check battery voltage is important. Battery voltage is probably the closest equivalent of a gauge to measure the charge level of your battery. The at-rest voltage is the most accurate reading to take. This can be accomplished by removing the charger or taking the reading in the morning before the sun has a chance to illuminate the solar panel. In general the battery voltage must be measured after the charge voltage has been removed for an hour or two and with no load current. (Don't want to get up that early? Cover the panel with a towel). The voltages shown above are open circuit readings and correlate to the battery' state of charge. Measure with a digital voltmeter as the scale on most "cheapy" analogue meters cannot accurately show 1/10 VDC. Print this chart and stick it close to your boat battery as you will never remember these voltages at the time of a trouble.
Here are some guidelines to charge a dead battery.
dead 700 CCA (cold cranking amps) battery requires at least 8-10 hours of charging time using a 5 amp charger.
Most deep cycle batteries are rated around 500 CCA so a 5 amp charger will take approximately
7-9 hours to charge the battery.
you would like more information on pulse charging, go to one of the
following web sites where you can also order a controller.