In the Word of God we find “the Church of God” spoken of in the singular (1 Cor. 10.32), but we find the same Word referring to the “churches of God” in the plural (1 Thess. 2.14). How has this unity become a plurality? How has the Church which is essentially one become many? The Church of God has been divided* into the churches of God on the one ground of difference of locality. Locality is the only scriptural basis for the division of the Church into churches.
The seven churches in Asia, referred to in the Book of Revelation, comprised the church in Ephesus, the church in Smyrna, the church in Pergamos, the church in Thyatira, the church in Sardis, the church in Philadelphia and the church in Laodicea. They were seven churches, not one. Each was distinct from the others on the ground of the difference of locality. It was only because the believers did not reside in one place that they did not belong to one church. There were seven different churches simply for this reason, that the believers lived in seven different places. Ephesus, Smyrna, Pergamos, Thyatira, Sardis, Philadelphia and Laodicea are clearly all the names of places. Not only were the seven churches in Asia founded on the basis of locality, but all the churches mentioned in Scripture were founded on that same basis. Throughout the Word of God we can find no name attached to a church save the name of a place, e.g. the church in Jerusalem, the church in Lystra, the church in Derbe, the church in Colosse, the church in Troas, the church in Thessalonica, the church in Antioch. This fact cannot be over-emphasized that in Scripture no other name but the name of a locality is ever connected with a church, and division of the Church into churches is solely on the ground of difference of locality.
* The word “divided” is used here in its purest sense
Spiritually the Church of God is one, therefore it cannot be divided but physically its members* are scattered throughout the earth, therefore they cannot possibly live in one place. Yet it is essential that there be a physical gathering together of believers. It is not enough that they be present “in the spirit,” they must also be present “in the flesh.” Now a church is composed of all “the called-out ones assembled” in one place for worship, prayer, fellowship and ministry. This assembling together is absolutely essential to the life of a church. Without it there may be believers scattered throughout the area, but there is really no church. The Church exists because of the existence of its members, and it does not require that they meet in a physical way; but it is essential to the very existence of a church that its members gather together in a physical way. It is in this latter sense that the word “church” is used in 1 Cor. 14. The phrase “in the church” (verses 19, 23, 28) means “in the church meetings.” A church is a church assembled. These believers are not separated from other believers in any respect but that of their dwelling-places. As long as they continue in the flesh they will be limited by space, and this physical limitation, which, in the very nature of things makes it impossible for God’s people to meet in one place, is the only basis sanctioned by God for the forming of separate churches. Christians belong to different churches for the sole reason that they live in different places. That division is merely external. In reality the Church as the Body of Christ cannot be divided, therefore even when the Word of God refers to the different assemblies of His people, the places named vary, but it is still “the church” in every one of these places, e.g. “the church in Ephesus,” “the church in Smyrna,” “the church in Pergamos,” etc.
In the New Testament there is one method and one alone of dividing the Church into churches, and that God-ordained method is division on the basis of locality. All other methods are man-made, not God-given. May the Spirit of God engrave this truth deeply on our hearts, that the only reason for the division of God’s children into different churches is because of the different places in which they live.
* The grudge which certain writers bear against the use of the word “member” in connection with the word “church” is merely a matter of terms, not of facts
What is a New Testament church? It is not a building, a Gospel-hall, a preaching centre, a mission, a work, an organization, a system, a denomination, or a sect. It is the meeting together for worship, prayer, fellowship and mutual edification, of all the people of God in a given locality, on the ground that they are Christians in the same locality. People may apply the term “church” to any of the above, but they are no church for all that. The Church is the Body of Christ; a church is a miniature Body of Christ. All the believers in a locality form the church in that locality, and in a small way they ought to show forth what the Church should show forth. They are the Body of Christ in that locality, so they have to learn how to come under the Headship of the Lord, and how to manifest oneness amongst all the members, guarding carefully against schism and division.